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Mineral Ores

Mineral deposit or ore deposit is defined as a rock body that contains one or more minerals sufficiently above the crustal abundance to have potential economic value.

Columbite is the Ore of Niobium and it forms a series with Tantalite. It is a black-brownish mineral found in Nigeria with Tin in alluvial deposits associated with the younger Granites and older Granites of the Plateau tin field. The most important deposits in Nigeria can be found in Nasarawa and Kaduna.

It is commonly used as an alloy to form wieldable high speed steel for radio transmitting valves, for jet engines and other aircrafts components and in making health products like pacemakers. It is mined through open cast mining and the use of explosives.

Lead is toxic metallic element. It’s freshly cut surface is bluish-white in color but it becomes dull gray upon exposure to air. Lead is very abundant on earth; it rarely occurs in its native form and is often found in association with Zinc. Zinc is silver grey or bluish-white in color.

The Ore of Lead is called Galena [PbS] and the Ore of Zinc is called Sphalerite [(Zn,Fe)S]. The Lead-Zinc Ore is very abundant on earth. Nigeria it can be found in Cross-River, Ebonyi, FCT Abuja, Plateau and Zamfara. It is often associated with barite mineralization and thought to be of hydrothermal origin.

Fracturing and joints are intense in areas of mineralization. It is highly dense and resistant to corrosion. Deposits of Pb-Zn occur in hydrothermal veins, metamorphic deposits and in pegmatite.

Tin Ore is also known as Cassiterite and it contain Tin Dioxide [SnO2]. It is usually found in high temperature hydrothermal veins and commonly associated with high level alkaline and paralkaline anorogenic Granites and Pegmatite. In Nigeria, it can be found in Mesozoic younger Granites, Pegmatite and alluvial deposits in Plateau and Jos with Tantalum, Corundum and Niobium as by-products.

Tin is silvery white in color and malleable. It is economically mined through dredging, hydraulic methods and open pit mining.

4thSpring Copper Ore [Cu]

Copper is soft, malleable, ductile with high thermal and electrical conductivity. It occurs in nature in directly usable metallic form. Its fresh surface is reddish brown in color. It is usually found in association with Sulfur, and slowly react with atmospheric oxygen to form a layer of brown black copper oxide which protects the underlying metal from further corrosion.


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27 May 2017
27 May 2017
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